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When to cite?

Citation guidelines

Scientific knowledge evolves thanks to the contributions of many different scientists (VandenBos, 2010). Therefore, every scientific work needs to be placed into context in order to show how it refers to theories in the field and findings of earlier work. Correct citations document the impact of a given work on scientific theory and show how the work further extends previous results. This presentation helps to understand when citations are needed.

It is important to credit the work of other researchers that you draw on in your own inquiry. By doing so, you avoid plagiarism. Examine the following issues that are further explored in the video:

Question: When do I need a citation?
Answer: Whenever a statement is not self-evident.

Question: How often can I use ‘direct quotes’ in my text?
Answer: As rarely as possible, as often as absolutely necessary. Reformulate in your own words – use direct quotes only for definitions.

Question: When do I need multiple citations? Answer: With general statements, multiple topics, and topics investigated by many studies.

Watch Sharon Steinemann explaining how to follow the citation guidelines:

References (in English APA style)

Maglio, S. J., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2013). Distance from a distance: Psychological distance reduces sensitivity to any further psychological distance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 644-657. doi: 10.1037/a0030258

Nosofsky, R. M. (1988). Similarity, frequency, and category representations. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 54–65. doi:10.1037//0278-7393.14.1.54

Soderberg, C. K., Callahan, S. P., Kochersberger, A. O., Amit, E., & Ledgerwood, A. (2015). The effects of psychological distance on abstraction: Two meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 525-548. doi: 10.1037/bul0000005

Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review, 117, 440-463. doi: 10.1037/a0018963

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Example 3 was adapted from Nosofsky, 1988, p. 54; Examples 4 and 5 were adapted from Soderberg, Callahan, Kochersberger, Amit, & Ledgerwood, 2015, p. 525; Examples 6 and 7 from Trope & Liberman, 2010, p. 440 and p. 645; Example 8 from Maglio et al., 2013, p. 655.


University of Basel